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Many teens and women are fighting a constant battle with the scale.Whatever they do they still can’t lose weight and if they do lose it, it’s hard to keep it off…. Eventually they start accepting the way they look and lose hope in losing weight, well they can’t spend all our lives dieting, right? They […]



heart-healthy lifestyle can help prevent heart disease, which can lead to acute coronary syndrome. If you already have heart disease, a heart-healthy lifestyle along with medicine can help prevent a heart attack.

Stay at a healthy weight. Lose weight if you need to.

Stay at a healthy weight. Lose weight if you need to.

Eat a heart-healthy diet that has lots of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein.

Eat a heart-healthy diet that has lots of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein.

Take a daily aspirin if your doctor advises it.

Take a daily aspirin if your doctor advises it.

Don't smoke.

Don't smoke.

Manage other health problems, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol.

Manage other health problems, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol.

Be active. Your doctor can suggest a safe level of exercise for you.

Be active. Your doctor can suggest a safe level of exercise for you.

Lower your stress level. Stress can damage your heart.

Lower your stress level. Stress can damage your heart.



risk factors that can be controlled!

  • high blood pressure
  • smoking
  • high blood cholesterol
  • lack of regular activity
  • obesity or overweight
  • diabetes

risk factors you can’t be controlled

  • age
  • gender
  • heredity (family health history)
  • race
  • previous stroke or heart attack
high blood pressure
diabetes
high blood cholesterol
previous stroke or heart attack
race
gender
obesity or overweight
lack of regular activity
smoking
age
heredity (family health history)

What are the benefits of heart-healthy eating?

Eating a heart-healthy diet is important for managing your blood pressure and reducing your risk of heart attack, stroke and other health threats.

Get quality nutrition from healthy food sources

Aim to eat a diet that’s rich in:

  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Whole-grains
  • Low-fat dairy products
  • Skinless poultry and fish
  • Nuts and legumes
  • Non-tropical vegetable oils

Limit:

  • Saturated and trans fats
  • Sodium
  • Red meat (if you do eat red meat, compare labels and select the leanest cuts available)
  • Sweets and sugar
  • sweetened beverages


What is Afib?

Have you ever felt your heart flutter, race or skip a beat? Most of us have at some point, But if this happens more frequently, you may have atrial fibrillation.
Atrial fibrillation (Afib) is a problem with the heart’s rhythm – the way it beats. When someone is “in Afib,” the heartbeats in a rapid, chaotic way.

What are some of the signs & symptoms?

Have you ever felt your heart flutter, race or skip a beat? Most of us have at some point, But if this happens more frequently, you may have atrial fibrillation.
Atrial fibrillation (Afib) is a problem with the heart’s rhythm – the way it beats. When someone is “in Afib,” the heartbeats in a rapid, chaotic way.

chest pain

chest pain

dizziness or feel faint While many women have one or more of these symptoms, some say they don’t experience any.

dizziness or feel faint While many women have one or more of these symptoms, some say they don’t experience any.

unexplained shortness of breath

unexplained shortness of breath

very rapid or irregular heartbeats – some women say they feel their heart flip-flopping in their chests, skipping a beat or fluttering

very rapid or irregular heartbeats

Listen to your body, Afib can occur every once and a while (called paroxysmal atrial fibrillation) or all the time (chronic atrial fibrillation).

Either way, be sure to tell your health care provider about all of your symptoms.

Millions of Women live with atrial fibrillation (Afib). Even though it is more common in men, women with Afib are more likely to have a stroke. Untreated, Afib can also lead to heart failure and chronic fatigue.

Risk factors:

Afib is more likely as you get older. On average, women tend to develop Afib around 75 years of age (vs 67 for men). However, younger women can also have it. Other risk factors can include:

other heart problems, especially valve disease, heart failure or a history of heart attack or open heart surgery

other heart problems, especially valve disease, heart failure or a history of heart attack or open heart surgery

family history

family history

other medical conditions including thyroid problems, diabetes and sleep apnea

other medical conditions including thyroid problems, diabetes and sleep apnea

high blood pressure (hypertension)

high blood pressure (hypertension)

Smoking

Smoking

being obese

being obese

alcohol

alcohol

How is Afib diagnosed?

Your doctor will first ask how you have been feeling and perform a physical exam. If you’ve noticed chest pains, breathlessness or a racing heart, be prepared to tell him or her when they happen (laying down, climbing stairs, etc.) and how often.

How is Afib diagnosed?
Your doctor may order some routine blood work and other screening.

Your doctor may order some routine blood work and other screening.

Your doctor may order some routine blood work and other screening.

There are a number of things you can do to live well with Afib and prevent problems.

A

Pay attention to risk factors for Afib, heart disease and stroke. Make sure your blood pressure and cholesterol levels are stable.

Make sure your blood pressure and cholesterol levels are stable.
Eat a healthy diet.
B

Eat a healthy diet.

C

Exercise regularly and monitor your weight.

Exercise regularly and monitor your weight.
alcohol, caffeine, upper respiratory infections and extreme stress.
D

Know what triggers an episode. Doing so will help you prevent or better anticipate Afib.
Common risks that triggers an AFib episode: alcohol, caffeine, upper respiratory infections and extreme stress.

E

Learn how to pace yourself. Most women living with Afib will tell you it is a livable condition

Learn how to pace yourself. Most women living with Afib will tell you it is a livable condition
Have a plan to stay calm. Anxiety can make episodes much worse.
F

Have a plan to stay calm. Anxiety can make episodes much worse.

G

Take your medications as prescribed.

Learn how to pace yourself. Most women living with Afib will tell you it is a livable condition
Know your risk of stroke & other health problems
H

Know your risk of stroke & other health problems

Possible treatments include lifestyle changes and medications and/or medical procedures

Possible treatments include lifestyle changes and medications and/or medical procedures

  • blood-thinning medications to prevent clots
blood-thinning medications to prevent clots
  • heart rate control medications that bring the heart rate to a normal level
heart rate control medications that bring the heart rate to a normal level
  • heart rhythm control medications that restore or maintain normal heart rhythm
heart rhythm control medications that restore or maintain normal heart rhythm
  • electrical cardioversion –paddles are applied to the chest to shock the heart back into a normal rhythm
electrical cardioversion –paddles are applied to the chest to shock the heart back into a normal rhythm
catheter ablation
  • catheter ablation – wires are inserted into veins in the leg or arm and threaded to the heart to alter abnormal areas that may be causing the abnormal heart rhythm
surgical maze
  • surgical maze – small cuts are made in the heart, creating a “maze” that prevents the abnormal beats from controlling the heart. This is a very effective treatment, but because this requires open heart surgery, it is often used when other options have failed.
Afib is often an ongoing condition that needs to be managed.
  • It’s not a one-time episode!

    Afib is often an ongoing condition that needs to be managed. Women say having regular appointments with their cardiologists and taking medicines to steady their hearts is something you need to follow to maintain a healthy life.



Obesity

  • Within 20 years, the percent of obese adult women has increased significantly:
  • 1988-1994: 25.5% obese
  • 2009-2012: 35.9% obese
Obesity
Heart Disease

Heart Disease

  • More than 50 million women are currently living with some form of cardiovascular disease.
  • Millions of women are currently living with coronary heart disease (CHD).
  • Heart disease is the leading cause of death of women.

The Risks

The Risks
Obesity is a major risk factor for heart cardiovascular disease

Obesity is a major risk factor for heart cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with 13% of CVD deaths in adults.

Between 1971 and 2004 total energy consumption for adult women has increased by 22%, compared to a 10% increase in adult men.

Total energy consumption for adult women has increased
44.9% of adult women have total cholesterol of at least 200mg/dL.

44.9% of adult women have total cholesterol of at least 200mg/dL.

31.7% of women do not engage in leisure time physical activity.

31.7% of women do not engage in leisure time physical activity.
18.5% of adults who are obese also have diabetes.

18.5% of adults who are obese also have diabetes. The greater a person’s BMI (Body Mass Index), the greater their risk of having diabetes.



Heart Disease and Diabetes in Women

Your body gets most of its energy from glucose, a form of sugar that comes from some of the food you eat. If you have diabetes, it’s harder for your body to turn food into energy. That’s because the body either:

Heart Disease and Diabetes in Women

cannot produce enough insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas),

or both.

cannot use insulin (also called insulin resistance),

heart disease treatment in women and in men

Without enough insulin, glucose can’t enter the cells. Over time, the amount of glucose in your blood rises and cells are starved of energy. In addition to heart attack and stroke, uncontrolled diabetes can eventually lead to other health problems as well, such as blindness, kidney failure, and amputations.

Without enough insulin, glucose can’t enter the cells, Heart Disease and Diabetes in Women

Heart disease & diabetes often occur together. Whether you have heart disease or are at high risk of it, get your blood glucose (sugar) level checked regularly, especially if diabetes runs in your family.

Diabetes

Heart Disease and Diabetes in Women
  • 10.6 million women have diabetes (8 percent of all women ages 20 years and older)
  • 3 million women who have diabetes are undiagnosed.
  • 34.4 million women have pre-diabetes.
  • 14.6% of African-American women have diabetes.
  • 11.8% of Hispanic-American women have diabetes.
  • Prevalence for diabetes African American women is two times higher than in Caucasian women (14.6% of African-American women have diabetes while 6.1% of Caucasian women have diabetes)
Heart diseases and diabetes in women

Heart Disease

Heart Disease in Women
  • 43.8 million women are currently living with some form of cardiovascular disease. Nearly 7 million women have a history of heart attack and/or angina.
  • 6.6 million women are currently living with coronary heart disease (CHD).
  • Heart disease is the leading cause of death of American women and is responsible for 1 in 3 deaths in women annually.
Heart Disease in Women
  • Diabetes dramatically increases a woman’s chances of developing heart disease and having a heart attack and at much younger ages.
  • Diabetes erases the heart protective benefits of estrogen during child-bearing years.
Diabetes erases the heart protective benefits of estrogen during child-bearing years.
Women with diabetes are up to five times more likely to develop heart disease than women who don’t have diabetes.

Women with diabetes are up to five times more likely to develop heart disease than women who don’t have diabetes. Women with diabetes who have survived a heart attack are at much greater risk of having a second one compared to women without diabetes. Diabetes contributes to heart-related deaths.

Two out of three women with diabetes die from heart disease.

Two out of three women with diabetes die from heart disease.
Heart disease and diabetes in women

While the death rate from heart disease has dropped by 27 percent in women without diabetes, deaths from heart and blood vessel disease in women with diabetes have increased by 23 percent over the last 30 years.

Smoking doubles the risk for heart disease in people with diabetes.

Smoking doubles the risk for heart disease in people with diabetes.

2 out of 3 adults with diabetes report also having high blood pressure or taking prescription medications to lower their blood pressure.

2 out of 3 adults with diabetes report also having high blood pressure
  • Women with diabetes are 2.5 times more likely to have heart attacks.
  • The risk for stroke is 1.5 times higher among people with diabetes.
2 out of 3 adults with diabetes report also having high blood pressure or taking prescription medications

2 out of 3 adults with diabetes report also having high blood pressure or taking prescription medications

Know Your (Diabetes) ABCs

Know Your (Diabetes) ABCs

Your health care team will focus on controlling your blood sugar levels and lowering blood pressure and blood cholesterol, together with use of aspirin and other medications as indicated.

Know Your (Diabetes) ABCs

A

stands for A1C (a test that shows average blood glucose level over the past three months). Have this checked at least twice a year.

A1C target Below 7 percent

Know Your (Diabetes) ABCs , stands for A1C
High blood pressure is serious and can make your heart work too hard.

B

is for blood pressure. High blood pressure is serious and can make your heart work too hard.
Blood pressure target Below 130/80 mm Hg

C

is for cholesterol (lipids). Have it checked at least once a year.

Blood fat (cholesterol) targets LDL (bad) cholesterol Under 100 mg/dL Triglycerides Under 150 mg/dL HDL (good) cholesterol For men: above 40 mg/dL For women: above 50 mg/dL

is for cholesterol (lipids). Have it checked at least once a year.


Heart disease for women risk factors:

Diabetes:

Women with diabetes are at greater risk of heart disease than are men with diabetes.

Mental stress and depression:

Women’s hearts are affected by stress and depression more than men’s. Depression makes it difficult to maintain a healthy lifestyle and follow recommended treatment, so talk to your doctor if you’re having symptoms of depression.

Mental stress and depression
Smoking

Smoking:

In women, smoking is a greater risk factor for heart disease in women than it is in men.

Inactivity:

A lack of physical is major risk factor for heart disease, and some research has found women to be more inactive than men.

Inactivity
Overweight

Overweight:

(Body Mass Index [BMI] 2529.9-) or Obesity (BMI higher than 30)

Menopause:

Low levels of estrogen after menopause pose a significant risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease in the smaller blood vessels (coronary microvascular disease).

Menopause

Broken heart syndrome:

This condition often brought on by stressful situations that can cause severe, but usually temporary, heart muscle failure occurs more commonly in women after menopause. This condition may also be called takotsubo cardiomyopathy, apical ballooning syndrome or stress cardiomyopathy.

Broken heart syndrome

Pregnancy complications:

High blood pressure or diabetes during pregnancy can increase women’s long-term risk of high blood pressure and diabetes and increase the risk of development of heart disease in the mothers.

Pregnancy complications
Poor diet

Poor diet:

Family history of heart or vascular disease:

Some research has found that if you had pregnancy complications such as high blood pressure or diabetes your children may also have an increased risk of heart disease in the future.

Family history of heart or vascular disease


The table below outlines a basic plan of care that may or may not apply to you, based on the cause of your heart failure and your special needs. Ask your doctor to explain therapies that are listed if you do not understand why you are or are not receiving them.

Stages of Heart Failure

Stage A

Definition of Stage

People at high risk of developing heart failure (pre-heart failure), including people with:

  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • History of cardiotoxic drug therapy
  • History of alcohol abuse
  • History of rheumatic fever
  • Family history of cardiomyopathy
Usual Treatments
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Treat high blood pressure.
  • Treat lipid disorders.
  • Discontinue alcohol or illegal drug use.
  • An angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) is prescribed if you have coronary artery disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, or other vascular or cardiac conditions.
  • Beta blockers may be prescribed if you have high blood pressure or if you’ve had a previous heart attack.
Usual Treatments for Stage A
Usual Treatments for Stage A

Stage B

Definition of Stage

People diagnosed with systolic left ventricular dysfunction but who have never had symptoms of heart failure (pre-heart failure), including people with:

  • Prior heart attack
  • Valve disease
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • The diagnosis is usually made when an ejection fraction of less than 40% is found during an echocardiogram test.
Usual Treatments
  • Treatment methods above for Stage A apply
  • All patients should take an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB)
  • Beta-blockers should be prescribed for patients after a heart attack
  • Surgery options for coronary artery repair and valve repair or replacement (as appropriate) should be discussed
  • If appropriate, surgery options should be discussed for patients who have had a heart attack.
Usual Treatments for Stage B

Stage C

Definition of Stage

Patients with known systolic heart failure and current or prior symptoms. Most common symptoms include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Reduced ability to exercise
Reduced ability to exercise

Reduced ability to exercise

Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath

Fatigue

Fatigue

Usual Treatments
  • Treatment methods above for Stage A apply
  • All patients should take an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors) and beta-blockers
  • African-American patients may be prescribed a hydralazine/nitrate combination if symptoms persist
  • Diuretics (water pills) and digoxin may be prescribed if symptoms persist
  • An aldosterone inhibitor may be prescribed when symptoms remain severe with other therapies
  • Restrict dietary sodium (salt)
  • Monitor weight
  • Restrict fluids (as appropriate)
  • Drugs that worsen the condition should be discontinued
  • As appropriate, cardiac resynchronization therapy (biventricular pacemaker) may be recommended
  • An implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) may be recommended

Stage D

Definition of Stage

Patients with systolic heart failure and presence of advanced symptoms after receiving optimum medical care.

Usual Treatments

Treatment methods for Stages A, B & C apply
Patient should be evaluated to determine if the following treatments are available options: heart transplant, ventricular assist devices, surgery options, research therapies, continuous infusion of intravenous inotropic drugs and end-of-life (palliative or hospice) care.

Usual Treatments of Stage D


Your doctor will ask you many questions about your symptoms and medical history. You will be asked about any conditions you have that may cause heart failure (such as coronary artery disease, angina, diabetes, heart valve disease, and high blood pressure). You will be asked if you smoke, take drugs, drink alcohol (and how much you drink), and about what drugs you take.

How Is Heart Failure Diagnosed?

You will also get a complete physical exam

Your doctor will listen to your heart and look for signs of heart failure as well as other illnesses that may have caused your heart muscle to weaken or stiffen.

Your doctor may also order other tests to determine the cause and severity of your heart failure. These include:

Blood tests

Blood tests are used to evaluate kidney and thyroid function as well as to check cholesterol levels and the presence of anemia. Anemia is a blood condition that occurs when there is not enough hemoglobin (the substance in red blood cells that enables the blood to transport oxygen through the body) in a person’s blood.

B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) blood test

BNP is a substance secreted from the heart in response to changes in blood pressure that occur when heart failure develops or worsens. BNP blood levels increase when heart failure symptoms worsen, and decrease when the heart failure condition is stable. The BNP level in a person with heart failure — even someone whose condition is stable — is higher than in a person with normal heart function. BNP levels do not necessarily correlate with the severity of heart failure.

Chest X-ray

A chest X-ray shows the size of your heart and whether there is fluid build-up around the heart and lungs.

Echocardiogram

This test is an ultrasound which shows the heart’s movement, structure, and function.

The Ejection Fraction (EF) is used to measure how well your heart pumps with each beat to determine if systolic dysfunction or heart failure with preserved left ventricular function is present. Your doctor can discuss which condition is present in your heart.

Echocardiogram

Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)

An EKG records the electrical impulses traveling through the heart.

Cardiac catheterization

This invasive procedure helps determine whether coronary artery disease is a cause of congestive heart failure.

Stress Test

Stress Test

Noninvasive stress tests provide information about the likelihood of coronary artery disease.

Other tests may be ordered, depending on your condition.



Heart failure is caused by many conditions that damage the heart muscle, including:

Coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease (CAD), a disease of the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart, causes decreased blood flow to the heart muscle. If the arteries become blocked or severely narrowed, the heart becomes starved for oxygen and nutrients.

Narrowing of Artery
Narrowing of Artery
Normal Artery
Normal Artery

Heart Attack

heart attack occurs when a coronary artery becomes suddenly blocked, stopping the flow of blood to the heart muscle. A heart attack damages the heart muscle, resulting in a scarred area that does not function properly.

Narrowing of Artery
Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy

Damage to the heart muscle from causes other than artery or blood flow problems, such as from infections or alcohol or drug abuse.

Conditions that overwork the heart. Conditions including high blood pressurevalve diseasethyroid disease, kidney diseasediabetes, or heart defects present at birth can all cause heart failure. In addition, heart failure can occur when several diseases or conditions are present at once.

Cardiomyopathy


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Emirates Cardiac Society (ECS) is a non-profit organization comprising of cardiologists within the UAE that work under the umbrella of the Emirates Medical Association.


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